Thursday, December 27, 2012

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Steam Power Plant (PLTU)


Steam plant is a plant that depends on the kinetic energy of steam to produce electricity. The principal forms of this type of energy is connected to a generator turbine to rotate the turbine requiring the kinetic energy of hot water vapor or dry. Power plants using a variety of fuels, especially coal and fuel oil and MFO start early.

The first plant operating in Indonesia in 1962, with a capacity of 25 MW, the temperature 500 ¼ C, pressure 65 kg/cm2 boilers still use regular tube and generator cooling is done by air. Progress of the first boiler plant is equipped with a generator coolant pipe wall and be done with hydrogen, but its capacity is 25 MW. When the power was increased from 100 to 200 MW, the boiler must be equipped super Hiter, ekonomizer and pressure of the furnace. Then reheat turbine can conduct current and dual cooling and still use the hydrogen generator. It's only for a capacity of 200 MW steam has produced 131.5 kg/cm2 pressure and temperature 540 ¼ C and still use fuel oil.

When the capacity of 400 MW power plant reached the fuel oil is no longer used, but coal. Coal is used broadly divided into two parts, namely a high-quality coal and coal quality. If the quality of the coal used properly, it will result in very few harmful elements, so it's not pollute the environment. Being used when the coal quality is low, then it will produce a lot of harmful elements such as nitrogen, sulfur and sodium. Furthermore, when combustion is not perfect, it will produce toxic substances, as well as CO hence the efficiency is low.

Coal power plant in Indonesia, which was built in Suryalaya in tahun1984 with an installed capacity of 4 x 400 MW. Bukit Asam So coal power plant with a capacity of 2 x 65 MW in 1987. And, in 1993, the operation of the plant also Paiton 1 and 2, each with a capacity of 400 MW. Then, the plant will be developed Suryalaya units 5-7, with a capacity of 600 MW / unit. Coal power plant capacity in 1994 reached 2130 MW (16% of total installed capacity). In 2003 an estimated capacity of 12,100 MW (37%) in 2008/09 reached 24,570 MW (48%) and in 2020 about 46,000 MW. At the same time, the use of coal in 1995 found that in order to produce 17.3 TWh of electrical power required sebsar 7.5 million tons of coal. And in 2005, coal consumption is estimated at 45.2 million tonnes, with the electricity generated reached 104 TWh.

The amount of coal use will certainly determine the cost of plant construction. The price of coal itself is determined by the amount of heat (Kcal / kg), or when the amount of heat will maintain the low price of 1% per year. Heat medium is determined by the amount of SOx substances, which is a toxic substance, to plant must be equipped Sox vacuo. This is why the cost of coal plant 20% greater than the plant oil. When coal use your content SOx low, then there needs to be complemented by the power vacuum thus SOx power charcoal prices could be cheaper. Generation of excellence is the cheaper fuel and oil reserves are available in large numbers and spread throughout Indonesia.
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