Tuesday, December 25, 2012

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Nuclear Power Plant

Nuclear Power Plant (NPP)

P nuclear rinsip work basically the same as conventional power plants, ie the water evaporates over burning kettle. The resulting steam flow to the turbine which will move when there is a vapor pressure. Turnover is used to drive a turbine generator, producing electricity. The difference in conventional fuel power plant to generate heat using fossil fuels such as coal, oil and gas. The impact of burning fossil fuels emit carbon dioxide (CO2), sulfur dioxide (SO2) and nitrogen oxides (NOx) and dust particles containing heavy metals. Combustion will be too emisikan to air and potentially contaminating the environment, which can lead to acid rain and global warming. Although the nuclear heat is used to produce steam same resulting cleavage reaction of the core of fissile material (uranium) in nuclear reactors. As heat transfer is generally used water is circulated continuously to operate nuclear plants. The process plant using uranium fuel does not release particles such as CO2, SO2, NOx, or not smoke or dust containing heavy metals are released into the environment. Therefore, nuclear power is the generation of green electricity. Radioactive waste resulting from the operation of nuclear plants is in the form of spent fuel elements in solid form. The elements of this spent fuel can be stored temporarily on site plant before storage management.

Attached Security: Security is attached is designed based on the properties of water and natural uranium. When the temperature in the reactor core increased, the number of neutrons that are not captured and are not experiencing the deceleration will increase, so that the cleavage reaction is reduced. As a result of the generated heat is also reduced. These properties ensure that the yard will not be damaged control system of the reactor, it did not work.

Double barrier: NPP has a tight security system and a multi-layered, so the possibility of accidents and the impact is very small. For example, radioactive nuclei produced during the cracking reaction of uranium most (> 99%) remains in the matrix of fuel, which serves as the first barrier. During operation, and in case of accident, the fuel cartridge, will act as a second barrier to prevent release of radioactive substances without the coating. If radioactive substances may also be outside the liner, there is a third barrier is the cooling system. In addition to the cooling system, there are four barriers in the form of a pressure vessel steel having a thickness of ± 20 cm. The fifth barrier is the concrete barrier with a 1.5-2 m thick. If there were a radioactive substance that escapes from the shell of concrete, there is still the barrier sixthly, the insulation system consisting of steel plates of a thickness of concrete and + 7 cm thickness 1.5 to 2 m are airtight.

Defense in depth: the safety of a nuclear power plant project adheres to the philosophy of defense in depth (defense in depth). Defense in depth include: security layer first, nuclear plants are designed, constructed and operated according to a very strict technology, high quality and advanced technology. The security system second-level nuclear is equipped with a safety / security is used to prevent and deal with the consequences of accidents that may occur during the lifetime of nuclear power plants. The third safety, nuclear plants are equipped with additional security systems, which can be invoked to deal with the possibility of an accident, or a severe accident is estimated to occur at a nuclear power plant. However, the accident probably would never happen during the lifetime of nuclear power plants.

Radioactive waste: During the operation of nuclear power plants, pollution by radioactive substances into the environment can not be said. Sea or river water used to transport heat from the condenser does not contain a radioactive substance, since it is not mixed with cooling water circulating in the reactor. At the same time, the radioactive gas may exit the reactor system remains trapped in the system is through the nuclear containment ventilation system with filter layers. The gases released through the chimney activity is very small (about 2 millicurie / year) which is likely to have an impact on the environment.
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