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How does hydroelectric / hydropower


Generation environment because it uses water as the primary energy. Water energy source with a certain height is used to drive a turbine coupled to a generator.

Hydropower:

1.Waduk
2.Main Gate
3.Bendungan
4.Penstock
5.Katup main
6.Turbin
7.Generator
8.Draftube
9.Tailrace
10.Transformator
11.Switchyard
12.Kabel Streaming
13.Spillways

Power Plant is a coal-fired thermal tanaga convert the potential energy of water (energy, gravitational water) into electrical energy. Driving machine used is a water turbine to convert the potential energy of the water into mechanical work spindle will rotate the rotor of a generator to produce electricity.


Water feedstock can be obtained hydraulics can be obtained in various ways, eg from the river flowing directly to turn a turbine or a first mode accommodated (together - rainwater same) using Tando tank or reservoir before be channeled to turn a turbine.

Reservoir:

Hydropower with reservoir
Water from rivers or stored in a place for a certain time with the dammed. The water in the reservoir passes through the open channel through the drainage water through a tube which then closed quickly turbine to generate electricity.

: Conversion of energy and hydroelectric PRINCIPLES

In principle, the process of hydropower potential energy of the water is converted into kinetic energy by the head, then the kinetic energy is transformed into mechanical energy that drives the turbine of water flow and mechanical energy is converted into electrical energy by means of rotation of the generator rotor. The amount of electricity that can be generated by water depends on two things, water upscale (head) and the water flow (discharge).


Scheme:

Hydroelectric Energy Image conversion scheme

To be able to generate electricity from water that pass through various stages of energy changes, namely:

One. Potential Energy
The potential energy is energy that occurs as a result of the potential difference, which is due to the height difference.
The amount of potential energy that is:
P = m. g. h
Where:
PE: Potential Energy
m: mass (kg)
g: gravity (9.8 kg/m2)
h: head (m)


2nd. Kinetic energy
The kinetic energy is energy generated due to the flow of water causing the water to a certain speed, which is formulated
K = 0.5 m. v v
Where:
Ek: kinetic energy
m: mass (kg)
v: velocity (m / s)

Mechanical 3.Energi
The mechanical energy is the energy resulting from movement of the turbine. The amount of mechanical energy depends on the size of the potential energy and kinetic energy. The amount of mechanical energy
formulated:
Em = T. . t
Where:
In: mechanical energy
T: torque
: Angle of rotation
t: time (s)

4th. \ Electricity TEnergi
When the turbine rotor wheel also rotates to produce electric power according to the equation:
El = V. I. t

Where:
El: Electricity
V: voltage (Volt)
I: Current (Amperes)
t: time (s)


Dam
Dams:


Or dam construction of the dam is built to withstand the rate of water reservoirs, lakes, or recreation. The dam is also used to drain water in a Central Power Station. Most of the dam also has a section called the gates of having unwanted water in stages or continuously. Types of dams include:

One. \ TBendungan Concrete
a) \ Gravity tBendungan
b) \ Arcos tBendungan
c) \ cavity tBendungan
2nd. \ TBendungan urugan
a) \ tBendungan Stone urugan
b) \ earth tBendungan
3rd. \ TBendungan Easel
4th. \ TBendungan Wood


TURBINE

Turbine:

Turbine consists of equipment and equipment consists of multiple turbine inlet water supply, as the blade (corridor), fast tube (holds), the turbine (spiral chasing), the main valve (inlet valve), the tube released (draft tube), safety devices, shaft, bearings (bearings) and electrical distributors. According to the amount of movement of water turbines can be divided into two groups: the reaction turbines and impulse turbines. Reaction turbine works because the water pressure while the work impulse turbine, because the speed of the water reaching the blade.

Principle of operation of razor blades-Reaction Turbine (runners) on Francis turbine and propeller blades serve as a road, a position sudunya fixed (can not be moved). While the blades in Kaplan turbine blades serves as a mobile sudunya position (on axis) is regulated by the servomotor with manual or automatic opening according to the set of blades. Process water pressure drop occurs in both the assembly and the slides on the blades (blade runner). The principle of Pelton turbine Terja different reaction turbine blade blade-shaped bowls serving as blades fixed position (could not move). In this case, the pressure drop of water is especially true in the blades just set it (nozzle) and too little (insignificant) occurs on the blades (bowls channels).

The water used to generate electricity could come the dam was built on the mountaintop, or groundwater flow. Due to water sources variables, the water turbine designed according to the characteristics and quantity of flowing water. Here is a different type of turbine used for hydropower.


GENERATOR
Generator:

Electricity generator is a device that produces electrical energy from mechanical energy source. The generator consists of two main parts, the rotor and stator. The rotor consists of 18 pieces of iron were wrapped around the wire and mounted in a circle to form nine pairs of north and south poles. If the pole is energized excitement automatic voltage regulator (AVR), then there will be a magnet. The rotor is a shaft with a turbine, so that if the rotor of the turbine wheel rotates too. Rotating magneto tension produced in the yarn each time a pole has "coil" located in the stator. Then, the voltage is then into electricity. For the generator to produce electricity, there are three things that should be considered:


1. \ TPutaran
Rotor rotation is influenced by the frequency and the number of pairs of poles on the rotor, according to the equation:
= 60. f / P

where:
: round
f: frequency
P: the number of pairs of poles
The number of poles on the rotor in hydropower Saguling much as 9 pairs, with a frequency of 50 Hertz system, the importance of the value of rotor rotation of 333 rpm​​.

2. \ TKumparan
Many and large number of coils on the stator affects the amount of power that can be generated by

3. \ TMagnet
Magnets for permanent magnet generator is not, but rather resulted from a twisted iron wire. If the coil is energized excitation of the AVR it will arise from the rotor magnet.
In order to get the equation:
E = B. V. L

where:
E: Style electromagnet
B: Strong magnetic fields
V: speed of play
L: Length of conductor

From the third case, which is still worth a round rotor and coil, so that the load is generated accordingly, then that can be arranged are kemagnetannya properties, by regulating the amount of incoming flow. The greater the incoming flow, the greater the value kemagnetannya, while smaller flows that enter, the smaller the value kemagnetannya.

According to the type of placement bearingnya thrust, the generator is divided into four, namely:

a) \ tJenis ordinary - placed over the generator thrust bearing with two guide bearings.
b) \ tJenis Umbrella (Umbrella Generator) - thrust bearing and a bearing guide placed under the rotor.
c) \ tJenis half umbrella (Umbrella Semi Generator) - a combination of guides and thrust bearings placed under the rotor and the second rotor placed over the guide bearing.
d) \ tJenis Supporting Down - thrust bearing placed under coupling.
Generators are used in Saguling is kind of Half Umbrellas.


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